CYPECAD, CYPE 3D and the Portal frame generator generate detailed ultimate limit state (U.L.S.) check reports. The U.L.S. reports contain all the checks these programs carry out to design concrete, steel, aluminium and timber elements. Each check refers to the design code and article requiring the check, or the criteria which have been applied to carry it out. The detailed contents of the U.L.S. reports make these essential documents with which users can verify, justify and optimise the design of the structural elements that have been analysed.
The programs and structural elements for which these reports are generated can be consulted in the CYPE programs that generate U.L.S. check reports section.
Use of the Ultimate limit state check reports
The U.L.S. reports contain all the checks carried out by the program to design and analyse concrete, steel, aluminium and timber elements. Therefore, they constitute an important document with which users can:
- Verify and justify the design of the analysed elements. Users can examine, each of the checks carried out by the program to design and analyse the reinforced concrete, steel, aluminium and timber sections.
- Optimise the design of the analysed elements. By observing the checks that fail, it is easier to decide on the optimum solution to solve the problem (increase sections or reinforcement, provide stiffeners, check whether the introduced buckling coefficients are adequate, etc.). Similarly, if all the checks are met, these reports also contribute on deciding how to obtain a better demand capacity ratio.
The level of detail of these reports also acts as a guide allowing users to know all the checks to which the analysed structural element is submitted. The program does not simply indicate whether the check fails or not, it also indicates which specific checks are not complied with. Additionally, each check refers to the design code and article requiring it.
CYPE programs that generate U.L.S. check reports
CYPECAD (including its integrated 3D structures), CYPE 3D and the Portal frame generator generate detailed ultimate limit state check reports. The following are the elements and materials for which these programs generate U.L.S. reports.
CYPECAD generates ultimate limit state reports for the following elements:
- Concrete and steel columns
The U.L.S. reports for reinforced concrete and steel (rolled, reinforced and cold-formed) columns are obtained from CYPECAD’s Column reinforcement editor (Results tab > Columns menu > Edit > select column).
The Edit option displays the new column reinforcement editor. Within this editor, the U.L.S. reports are generated by selecting the (U.L.S. report of the span of the selected column) symbol from the “Combination summary” table (to generate the U.L.S. report of the span of the selected column), or by pressing the button (to generate the U.L.S. report of all the spans of the selected column). The new column editor is available when the project is analysed with the following concrete codes:
- ABNT NBR 6118:2007 (Brazil)
- ACI 318M-08 (USA – International)
- B.A.E.L 91 (France)
- CIRSOC 201:2005 (Argentina)
- EHE-08 (Spain)
- Eurocode 2 (EU International)
- Eurocode 2 (France)
- Eurocode 2 (Portugal)
- IS 456:2000 (India)
- NCh430.Of2008 (Chile)
- NSR-10 (Colombia) (Título C - Concreto estructural)
- NTC: 14-01-2008 (Italy)
- NTCRC:2004 (Mexico)
- NTE E.060:2009 (Peru)
If a different concrete code is selected, the current version of CYPECAD does not yet generate the U.L.S. reports for concrete columns (other concrete codes will be implemented in the near future). It does, however, generate the U.L.S. reports for steel columns (for the majority of steel codes that are implemented in the program). In this case, the Edit option displays the classic column reinforcement editor, where the button can be selected for a steel column span (rolled, reinforced or cold-formed).
- Concrete and steel beams
CYPECAD allows users to generate Detailed Ultimate Limit State and Serviceability Limit State (U.L.S and S.L.S) check reports for concrete and (rolled, reinforced and cold-formed) steel beams using its advanced beam editor (Results tab > Beams/Walls menu > Edit beams and buttons.
The advanced beam editor provides users with great efficiency when reviewing and modifying the design of concrete and steel beams, as it allows them to consult a wide range of information on the selected portal frame, which is automatically updated with the changes made. This beam editor is not available for all the codes that users can select in CYPECAD, although more codes that can be used are added in each version of the program. Further information on this editor can be found in the Advanced beam editor section of the Concrete beams page.
For codes that cannot be used in the advanced beam editor as of yet, CYPECAD only generates U.L.S. reports for rolled, reinforced and cold-formed steel beams. In this case, the options that allow these lists to be obtained are the following:
- Steel (rolled, reinforced and cold-formed), aluminium and timber bars of CYPECAD’s integrated 3D structures
Since CYPECAD’s integrated 3D structures work the same way as CYPE 3D, please consult the CYPE 3D subsection to know how the U.L.S. reports are obtained for these structural elements.
CYPECAD also generates a summarised U.L.S. check report for concrete columns (in accordance with codes), concrete beams (in accordance with codes), steel columns and horizontal and sloped steel beams (this summary does not include bars belonging to any integrated 3D structures which may exist). To generate this summary, select the File menu > Print > Project reports > U.L.S. checks for columns and beams button.
CYPE 3D and CYPECAD’s integrated 3D structures generate detailed ultimate limit state check reports for steel (rolled, reinforced and cold-formed), aluminium and timber bars that have been designed with most of the codes implemented in the program. The sections of these bars where the U.L.S. reports can be obtained are:
- Any section of a bar indicated by the user
Analysis menu > U.L.S. Checks > At the indicated point option.
- The critical sections in each check of a bar selected by the user
Analysis menu > U.L.S. Checks > At the worst point option.
- The critical sections in each check of ten bars with errors or with the highest demand capacity ratio
File menu > Print > Project report > activate the Structure option – Results – Bars – U.L.S. Checks (Complete).
- The critical sections in each check of all the bars of the structure (summarised report)
File menu > Print > Project report > activate the Structure option – Results – Bars – U.L.S. Checks (Summarised).
Portal frame generator
Portal frame generator generates detailed ultimate limit state reports for the purlins which have been designed. To do this, the U.L.S. Checks button is available in the dialogue box (Project data menu > Edit lateral and roof purlins > select Purlins on roof or Purlins on sides > Accept button), and allows users to visualise and print these reports.
Examples of ultimate limit state check reports
U.L.S. check report of a reinforced concrete column. CYPECAD.
U.L.S. check report of a beam of a dual pitch frame. CYPE 3D.
U.L.S. check report of a column of a dual pitch frame. CYPE 3D.
U.L.S. check report of an aluminium bar. CYPE 3D.
Summarised U.L.S. check report of all the bars of the structure. CYPE 3D.
In order to access further features offered by the program, there are several modules that can be found on the “CYPECAD modules” and “CYPE 3D modules” webpages.